Charging Station Basics

Types of Charging Stations

Level 1 - Because Level 1 charging stations are incapable of network capacity, Greenspot does not deploy them in either the public right of way or at private developments, however, stations are suitable for residential use. Level 2 - Level 2 charging stations (L2s) operate at a voltage between 208V and 240V. The fastest charging you can get out of your charger depends on two factors: the amperage of the charger (usually 30 or 40 amps) and the car’s acceptance rate in kW. The maximum power available from 30 to 40 amp chargers follows:

30 amps at 240V: 7.2kW 30 amps at 208V: 6.34kW 40 amps at 240V: 9.6kW 40 amps at 208V: 8.32 kW

Level 3 - Level 3 charging stations, also known as Direct-Current Fast-Chargers (DCFC), normally operate at 480V. These charging stations are currently the fastest-operating charging stations available. Only PEVs/BEVs can charge at DCFCs. Level 3 charge times can be as fast as 30 minutes for 80% battery capacity. Level 3 EVSE differs from Level 2 in that AC-to-DC power conversion takes place in the charging station, making it possible to supply a high-voltage DC line to the battery to shorten the charging time. They can supply anywhere from 300V up to ~920V at a maximum of ~500A. The approximate charging time will be around 10-30 minutes depending on energy level in the battery. Unlike Levels 1 and 2, which are more typical of residential installations where EVs recharge overnight, Level 3 DC fast charging stations are usually found in public and shared settings.

Connectors

Level 1 and 2 Connectors - The most common connector is the SAE J1772 EV plug. All electric cars in Canada and in the US can charge using this plug, even Tesla cars as they come with an adapter. The J1772 connector is only available for level 1 and 2 charging. Level 3 Connectors - For fast-charging, the CHAdeMO and SAE Combo (also called CCS for “Combo Charging System”) are the most used connectors by electric cars manufacturers. These two connectors are not interchangeable, therefore a car using a CHAdeMO port cannot charge using an SAE Combo plug and vice versa. The third important connector is the one used by Teslas, which is used on level 2 and level 3 Tesla Supercharger stations, and which are only compatible with Tesla cars.

Electricity Consumption

EVSE operating costs include the cost of electricity to charge the vehicles. Charging hosts are encouraged to contact the electric utility to review the options for rate structure and any implications of using PEV charging rates or time-of-use (TOU) rates on the facility as a whole. In general, the annual electricity consumption cost for an EVSE owner is determined based on the electricity rate measured in dollars per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh) and the amount of electricity consumed. Commercial electricity rates typically range from $0.08-$0.15 per kWh, while industrial fleets could have lower rates. The consumption of electricity will vary based on the number of vehicles using the EVSE, power output of the EVSE, vehicle power acceptance rate, climate, and the amount of time the vehicles charge.

level2, Single Port Scenario Annual Electricity Consumption & Cost Installation Cost Amortized Over 10 y/kWh & cost/y
Workspace

2 Light duty vehicles, each charging 3hrs a day, 5 days a week

10,296 kWh/yr
$1030 yr
$0.006-$0.123 kWh
$60-$1270 yr
Public

1 Light duty vehicles, each charging 5hrs a day, 4 days a week

6,864 kWh/yr
$686 yr
$0.009-$0.185 kWh
$60-$1270 yr
Fleet

2 medium duty vehicles, each charging 5hrs a day, 5 days a week

10,296 kWh/yr
$1030 yr
$0.003-$0.123 kWh
$60-$1270 yr

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